Must Read One-Liners

UPPER LIMB HIGH YIELD – VERY IMP points FOR MCI SCREENING TEST

Most frequently fractured bone of body——–Clavicle
Most frequently dislocated carpal bone———Lunate
Most frequently fracture carpal bone———-Scaphoid
Name of fracture of distal radius that produces “dinner fork” appearance——- Colle’s fracture
Nerve injured with fracture of surgical neck of humerus———Axillary
Nerve injured with fracture of medial humeral epicondyle——–Ulnar
Nerve injured with fracture of shaft of humerus————–Radial
Nerve injured in wrist drop———-Radial
Muscle that is chief flexor and chief extensor at shoulder joint ———Deltoid
Muscles innervated by axillary nerve———-Deltoid and teres minor
Muscle that initiates abduction of arm———Supraspinatus
Most commonly torn tendon of rotator cuff———–Supraspinatus
Two muscles that rotate scapula for full abduction of arm——-Trapezius and serratus anterior
Tendon that courses through shoulder joint———Long head of biceps
Chief supinator muscle of hand———Biceps brachii
Injury to what nerve causes winged scapula———Long thoracic nerve
spinal levels of axillary nerve———C5 and C6
Spinal levels to muscles of the hand——–C8 and T1
Dermatome of thumb——–C6
Nerve to thenar compartment———-Recurrent branch of Median
Innervation of adductor pollicis———Ulnar (deep br.)
Innervation to all interosseous muscles———–Ulnar (deep br.)
Region affected by upper trunk injury of brachial plexus———— Shoulder
Region affected by lower trunk injury of brachial plexus ——-Intrinsic hand muscles
Nerve compressed with carpal tunnel syndrome———–Median
nerve affected by cubital tunnel syndrome———-Ulnar
Paralysis of which muscles results in total “claw” hand———-Lumbricals
Treatment for schistosomes——–.Praziquantel
Treatment for clonorchis sinensis———— praziquantel
Treatment for pneumocystis carinii.———- TMP-SMX
Treatment for Chaga’s disease?————– Nifurtimox
Treatment for trypanosomiasis?————– Suramin (except chaga’s, use nifurtimox)
Firstline treatment for malaria————?Chloroquine

ANTIBACTERIAL DRUG OF CHOICE LIST

01. Enterococcus: Ampicillin + Gentamicin
02. Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin-susceptible): Nafcillin
03. Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin-resistant): Vancomycin
04. Streptococcus pneumonia (penicillin-susceptible): Penicillin G, Amoxicillin
05. Streptococcus pneumonia (penicillin-resistant): Vancomycin + Ceftriaxone
06. Neisseria gonorheae: Ceftriaxone (IV), Cefixime (oral)
07. Treponema pallidum: Penicillin G
08. M. meningitidis: Penicillin G
09. Moraxella catarrhalis: Cefuroxime, Fluoroquinolones
10. Clostridium difficile: Metronidazole
11. Bacteroides fragilis: Metronidazole
12. Mycoplasma pneumoniae: Macrolide
13. Chlamydia trachomatis: Azithromycin or other Macrolides
14. Klebsiella pneumoniae: 3rd generation cephalosporin
15. Enterobacter: Carbapanem, Cefipime
16. Escherichia coli: 3rd generation cephalosporin
17. Campylobacter jejuni: Macrolide
18. Gardnerella vaginalis: Metronidazole
19. Proteus mirabilis: Ampicillin
20. Proteus indole positive: 3rd generation cephalosporin
21. Salmonella typhi: Ceftriaxone
22. Shigella: Fluoroquinolone
23. Serratia: Carbapanem

MOST COMMON CAUSE ASKED IN PREVIOUS EXAMINATIONS
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MCC of intracranial metastasis-Ca lung

MCC of hepatic metastasis – Bronchogenic carcinoma

MCC of hepatic mets from GIT – Colonic ca

MCC of Intrauterine Growth retardation-C/c pyelonephritis?

MCC of HTN in children-A/c Glomerulonephritis

MC complication of CSOM-Temporal lobe abscess

MC ovarian tumour in pregnancy-Teratoma/Dermoid cyst

MC joint involved in Osteo Arthritis-Knee joint

MCC of interstitial/atypical pneumonia- Mycoplasma

MC Glycogen storage disease-Gaucherís disease

MC porphyria-Porphyria cutanea tarda.

MC cause of childhood nephrotic syndrom-Minimal change disease

MC cause of adult nephrotic syndrome- Membranous glomerulonephritis.

MC cancer-Lung cancer

MC cancer in females-Breast cancer

MC cause of maternal deaths-Obstetric hemorrhage(PPH)

MC cause of Blindness in India-Cataract

MC site of Gastrinoma- Duodenum.

MC Paraneoplastic Syndrome-Hypercalcemia

MC paraneoplastic endocrinopathy-Cushings syndrome

mc s/e of radiation on heart  pericardial effusion

m.c. cause of cushing­s disease- pituitary microadenoma

mcc of primary hyperaldosteronism- b/l cortical hyperplasia

mc aldosterone producing adrenal tumour- u/l adrenal adenoma

mcc of post trauma vegetative state- diffuse axonal injury

mc asso anomaly with coarctation of aorta- bicuspid aortic valve

mcc of vasculitis in child- henoch-schonlein purpura

mc feature of aortitis on x-ray- calcified ascending aorta

IMPORTANY BODIES

Starry sky pattern? Burkitt’s lymphoma
most commonly recieves mets? Adrenal gland (rich blood supply)
most common testicular tumor in children? in Men? Yolk sac tumor, Seminoma
Auer’s rods? Acute myelocytic leukemia (AML)-M3
Aschoff’s bodies? Rheumatic fever
Birbeck granules? Histiocytosis X
Neurofibrillary tangles? Alzheimer’s disease
Bence-Jones proteinuria? Multiple myeloma
Cal-Exner bodies? Granulosa/thecal cell tumor of the ovary
Cowdry type A bodies? Herpes virus
Codman’s triangle on an x-ray? Osteosarcoma
Councilman bodies? Toxic or viral hepatitis
Calf pseudohypertrophy? Duchenne’s muscular dystrophy
Reed-Sternberg cells? Hodgkin’s lymphoma
Heinz bodies? G-6-PD deficiency
Homer-Wright rosettes? Neuroblastoma
Curschmann’s spirals? Bronchial asthma (whorled mucous plugs)
Kayser-Fleischer rings? Wilson’s disease
Lewy bodies? Parkinson’s disease]
Orphan Annie cells? Papillary carcinoma of the ovary
Russell bodies? Multiple myeloma
Reinke’s crystals? Leydig cell tumor
Blue sclera? Osteogenesis imperfecta
Soap-bubble appearance on an x-ray? Giant cell tumor of the bone
Pseudorosettes? Ewing’s sarcoma
Lucid interval? Epidural hematoma
Bloody tap on lumbar puncture? Subarachnoid hemorrhage
Pseudopalisades? Glioblastoma multiforme
Charcot-Leyden crystals? Bronchial asthma (eosinophil membranes)
Cafe au fait spot on the skin? Neurofibromatosis
Streaky ovaries? Turner’s syndrome
Keratin pearls? Squamous cell carcinoma
Signet ring cells? Gastric carcinoma
Mallory’s bodies? Chronic alcoholism
Blue-domed cysts? Fibrocystic change of the breast
Schiller-Duval bodies? Yolk sac tumor
Senile plaques? Alzheimer’s disease
WBCs in the urine? Acute cystitis
RBCs in the urine? Bladder carcinoma
RBC casts in the urine? Acute glomerulonephritis
WBC casts in the urine? Acute pyelonephritis
Renal epithelial casts in the urine? Acute toxic or viral nephrosis
Waxy casts? Chronic end-stage renal disease
Cause of chronic metal poisoning? Lead
Cause of congenital cyanotic heart disease? Tetralogy of Fallot
Congenital cardiac anomaly? Ventricular septal defect (VSD)
Cardiac tumor? Left atrial myxoma
Vasculitis? Temporal arteritis
Primary tumor of the liver? Hemangioma (benign)
Primary malignant tumor of the lungs? Adenocarcinoma (30% to 35%)
most Cause of nephrotic syndrome? Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis
most cause of nephrotic syndrome in children? Lipoid nephrosis
most common: Organism that causes pyelonephritis? Escherichia coli
most common: Renal cell cancer type? Clear cell
most common: Tumor of the liver? Metastatic cancer (GI, breast, lungs)
most common: Malignant tumor of the esophagus? Squamous cell carcinoma
most common: Tumor arising within the bone? Multiple myeloma
most common: Primary malignant tumor of the female genital tract in the world? Cervical neoplasia
most common: Primary malignant tumor of the female genital tract in the US? Adenocarcinoma of the cervix
most common: Tumor of the female genitourinary tract? Leiomyoma
most common: Benign tumor of the ovary? Serocystadenoma
most common: Benign tumor of the breast? Fibroadenoma
most common: Benign lesion that affects the breast? Fibrocystic change of the breast
most common: Malignant tumor of the breast? Invasive ductal carcinoma
most common: Tumor in men between the ages of 15 and 35? Testicular tumors
most common: Germ cell tumor in men? Seminoma
most common: Testicular tumor in infants and children? Yolk sac tumor
most common: Malignant germ cell tumor in women? Choriocarcinoma
most common: Solid tumor in the body? Nephroblastoma
most common: Acquired GI emergency of infancy? Necrotizing enterocolitis of infancy
most common: Primary malignant tumor of the ovary? Serocystadenocarcinoma
most common: Cardiac tumor of infancy? Rhabdomyoma
most common: Acute metal poisoning? Arsenic
most common: Proliferative abnormality of an internal organ? Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)
most common: Malignant tumor in the bone of teenagers? Osteosarcoma
most common: Site of a cerebral infarct? Middle cerebral artery

AUTOANTIBODIES IMP FOR FMGE

Antigliadin — Celiac disease
ANtimitochondrial — Primary biliary cirrhosis
Antiplatelet — Idiopathic immune thrombocytic purpura
Anti-basement membrane — Goodpasture’s syndrome
Anti SS-A (anti-Ro) & Anti SS-B (anti-La) — Sjogren’s syndrome
Anti ds DNA & Anti Sm (ANAs) — SLE
Antihistone — Drug induced lupus
Anti-topoisomerase I (anti-Scl 70) — Diffuse Scleroderma
Anticentromere — CREST Syndrome
Anti-IgG (Rheumatoid factor) — Rheumatoid arthritis
Antithyroglobulin & Antithyroid peroxidase (antimicrosomal) — Hashimotos thyroiditis
Anti-desmoglein 3 — Pemphigus vulgaris
c-ANCA — Wegener granulomatosis
p-ANCA — Microscopic polyangitis & Churg-Strauss syndrome
Antiphospholipid — Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (Ex:SLE)
Anti-perietalcell — Pernicious anemia

MURMURS
Carey Coombs murmur- Mid diastolic murmur, in rheumatic fever
Austin Flint murmur- mid- late diastolic murmur,in Aortic Regurgitation.
Graham- Steel murmur- high pitched, diastolic, in pulmonary regurgitation.
Rytands murmur – mid diastolic atypical murmur, in Complete heart block.
Docks murmur-diastolic murmur, Left Anterior Descending(LAD) artery stenosis.
Mill wheel murmur- due to air in RV cavity following cardiac catheterization.
Stills murmur- inferior aspect of lower left sternal border, systolic ejection sound, small VSD

LIST OF SYNDROMES

ACUTE RADIATION SYNDROME: Radiation exposure.
12 hours post-exposure: Vomiting
24 hours post-exposure: Prostration (extreme exhaustion), fever, diarrhea
Later: Petechial hemorrhage, hypotension, tachycardia, profuse bloody diarrhea, maybe death.

CHINESE RESTAURANT SYNDROME: MSG reaction ——> Chest Pain, burning sensation over parts of body.

BROWN-SEQUARD SYNDROME: Damage (injury) to half of spinal cord ——> symptoms:
Loss of pain and temperature sensation on contralateral side of body.
Loss of proprioception and discriminatory touch on ipsilateral side of body.

EISENMENGER’S SYNDROME: Ventricular-Septal Defect ——> Pulmonary hypertension and cyanosis.

FLOPPY-VALVE SYNDROME: Mitral Incompetence due to myxomatous degeneration of the leaflets.

BEHCET’S SYNDROME: Vasculitis ——> secondary symptoms:
Oral and genital ulcers
Uveitis
Optic atrophy

SHOULDER-HAND SYNDROME: Pain in shoulder and swelling in hand, sometimes occurring after Myocardial Infarction.

SICK SINUS SYNDROME: Chaotic atrial activity; continual changes in P-Waves. Bradycardia, alternating with recurrent ectopic beats and runs of tachycardia.

SUPERIOR VENA CAVA SYNDROME: Caused by a tumor. Obstruction of SVC ——>
Edema
Engorgement of the vessels of face, neck, and arms.
Nonproductive cough
Dyspnea

TAKAYASU’S SYNDROME: Arteritis of the Aortic Arch, resulting in no pulse. Seen in young women.

WOLF-PARKINSON WHITE SYNDROME: ECG pattern of Paroxysmal Tachycardia.
Short PR interval
Delta wave = early QRS complex.

ASHERMAN’S SYNDROME: Adhesions within the endometrial cavity, causing amenorrhea and infertility.
Adhesions probably were caused by surgery.

CARCINOID SYNDROME: Carcinoid tumor producing Bradykinin + Serotonin ——> secondary symptoms:
Cyanotic flushing
Diarrhea
Bronchial spasm
Edema, ascites.

GARDNER’S SYNDROME: Multiple inherited tumors, hereditary dominant trait.
Skull osteomas, Fibromas, Epidermoid cysts
Colonic polyposis (APC gene) ——> predisposition to colonic adenocarcinoma.

LAMBERT-EATON SYNDROME: Progressive proximal muscle weakness secondary to a carcinoma.
MEIGS’ SYNDROME: Fibroma of ovary with ascites and hydrothorax

PANCOAST SYNDROME: Tumor near pulmonary apex ——>
Neuritic pain of chest and arm
Muscle atrophy of the arm
Horner’s Syndrome (impaired cervical sympathetics)

PEUTZ-JEGHERS SYNDROME: Polyposis (hamartomas) of small intestine
Also see melanin pigmentation of buccal mucosa and skin around mouth and lips

DANDY-WALKER SYNDROME: Obstruction of Foramina of Magendie and Luschka in infants ——> Hydrocephalus.

DIGEORGE SYNDROME: Congenital absence of 3rd and 4th Branchial Arches (Thymus and Parathyroid Glands) ——> secondary symptoms:
No cell-mediated immunity ——> Frequent viral and fungal infections
Characteristic facial deformities

DOWN SYNDROME: Trisomy 21. Mental retardation, characteristic facial features, Simeon crease in hand.
FANCONI’S SYNDROME Type I: Bone-marrow hypoplasia ——> refractory anemia, pancytopenia.

FETAL ALCOHOL SYNDROME: Fetal malformations, growth deficiencies, craniofacial anomalies, limb defects.

GOODPASTURE’S SYNDROME: Autoantibodies against basement membranes ——> Glomerulonephritis (kidney) and hemoptysis (lungs).
Often, death by renal failure

KLINEFELTER’S SYNDROME: Trisomy XXY ——> testicular atrophy, increase in gonadotropins in urine.

LESCH-NYHAN SYNDROME: Deficiency of HGPRT (Hypoxanthine-Guanine Phospho-ribosyltransferase ——>
Hyperuricemia, uric acid kidney stones
Choreoathetosis
Mental retardation, autism, spastic cerebral palsy
X-Linked recessive

MARFAN SYNDROME: Connective Tissue disorder ——>
Arachnodactyly: Abnormally long digits and extremities
Subluxation of lens
Dissecting aortic aneurism

POSTRUBELLA SYNDROME: Infantile defects resulting from maternal Rubella infection during first trimester.
Microphthalmos, cataracts
Deafness
Mental retardation
Patent ductus arteriosis, Pulmonary arterial stenosis

PRADER-WILLI SYNDROME: Short stature, mental retardation, polyphagia with marked obesity, sexual infantilism.

RENDU-OSLER-WEBER SYNDROME: Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia.
SUDDEN INFANT DEATH SYNDROME: Unexplained death in sleeping infants.

TURNER’S SYNDROME: XO monosomy.
Dwarfism
Webbed neck
Valgus of elbow.
Amenorrhea

WILSON SYNDROME: Congenital defect in Ceruloplasmin, leading to buildup of copper ——> mental retardation, cirrhosis, hepatolenticular degeneration.

CONN’S SYNDROME: Primary Hyperaldosteronism ——> muscular weakness, hypertension, hypokalemia, alkalosis.

CUSHING’S SYNDROME: Hypersecretion of cortisol ——> secondary symptoms and characteristics:
Fatness of face and trunk with wasting of extremities
Buffalo hump
Bone decalacification
Corticoid diabetes
Hypertension

SHEEHAN’S SYNDROME: Post-partum pituitary necrosis ——> hypopituitarism.

KARTAGENER’S SYNDROME: Situs Inversus (lateral transposition of lungs) resulting from chronic sinusitis and bronchiectasis.

MIDDLE-LOBE SYNDROME: Chronic pneumonitis and atalectasis of middle lobe of right lung.

CHURG-STRAUSS SYNDROME: Allergic Granulomatous Angiitis: Asthma, fever, eosinophilia.
INFECTIOUS

GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME: Infectious Polyneuritis of unknown cause.
HUNT’S SYNDROME: Herpe’s Zoster infection of Facial Nerve (CN VII) and Geniculate Ganglion ——> facial palsy.
Zoster of ear

PARINAUD’S SYNDROME: Preauricular lymph node enlargement on the same side as conjunctivitis.

REYE’S SYNDROME: Loss of consciousness and seizures in kids, after a viral infection treated by aspirin.

REITER’S SYNDROME: Symptom cluster. Etiology is thought to be Chlamydial or post-chlamydial.
Urethritis
Iridocyclitis (Conjunctivitis)
Arthritis
Skin lesions like karatoderma blenorrhagicum
Also can see fatty liver or liver necrosis.

SCALDED SKIN SYNDROME: S. Aureus toxic epidermal necrolysis
.
STEVENS-JOHNSON SYNDROME: Erythema Multiforme complication.
Large areas of skin slough, including mouth and anogenital membranes.
Mucous membranes: stomatitis, urethritis, conjunctivitis.
Headache, fever, malaise.

TOXIC SHOCK SYNDROME: Caused by superabsorbent tampons. Infection with Staph Aureus and subsequent toxicity of exotoxin TSST ——> systemic anaphylaxis.
Fever, vomiting, diarrhea
Red rash followed by desquamation

WATERHOUSE-FRIEDRICHSON SYNDROME: Meningeococcal Meningitis ——> DIC, hemorrhagic infarct of adrenal glands ——> fulminant adrenal failure.
Vomiting, diarrhea.
Shock
Extensive purpura, cyanosis, circulatory collapse.

RENAL

BARTTER’S SYNDROME: Juxtaglomerular Cell Hyperplasia ——> secondary symptoms:
Hyperaldosteronism, Hypokalemic Alkalosis, elevated renin and angiotensin
No hypertension.
Compare to Conn’s Syndrome

FANCONI’S SYNDROME Type II: Renal aminoaciduria, glycosuria, hypophosphaturia, cysteine deposition, rickets.

CARPAL-TUNNEL SYNDROME: Compression of Median Nerve through the Carpal Tunnel ——> pain and parasthesia over distribution of Median N.

ACUTE-BRAIN SYNDROME: Delirium, confusion, disorientation, developing suddenly in a person that was previously psychologically normal.

HORNER’S SYNDROME: Loss or lesion of cervical sympathetic ganglion ——>
Ptosis, miosis, anhydrosis
Enophthalmos (caved in eyes)

KORSAKOFF SYNDROME: Loss of short-term memory
in chronic alcoholism, caused by degeneration of mamillary bodies.

GASTROINTESTINAL

MALLORY-WEISS SYNDROME: Laceration of lower end of esophagus from vomiting ——> hematemesis. Often seen in alcoholics.

MALABSORPTION SYNDROME: Impaired absorption of dietary substance ——> diarrhea, weakness, weight loss, or symptoms from specific deficiencies.

BARRETT SYNDROME: Chronic peptic ulcer of the lower esophagus, resulting in metaplasia of esophageal columnar epithelium ——> squamous epithelium.

ZOLLINGER-ELLISON SYNDROME: Gastrin-secreting tumor in pancreas ——> Severe peptic ulcers, gastric hyperacidity.

PLUMMER-VINSON SYNDROME: Esophageal Webs, leading to dysphagis and atrophy of papillae of tongue.
Also see hypochromic anemia, splenomegaly.

BUDD-CHIARI SYNDROME:
ACUTE: Hepatic Vein Thrombosis ——> Massive ascites and dramatic death.
CHRONIC: Gradual hepatomegaly, portal hypertension, nausea, vomiting, edema, ulimately death.

DUBIN-JOHNSON SYNDROME: Defect in excretion of conjugated bilirubin ——> recurrent mild jaundice. Buildup of direct builirubin in blood.

CHIDIAK-HIGASHI SYNDROME: Abnormalities in leukocytes with large inclusions.

LOFFLER’S SYNDROME: Eosinophilia with transient infiltrates in lungs.

PARINAUD’S SYNDROME: Preauricular lymph node enlargement on the same side as conjunctivitis.

SJOGREN’S SYNDROME: Autoimmune complex
Keratoconjuctivitis Sicca (dry eyes and mouth)
Dryness of Mucous membranes
Telangiectasias in face
Parotid enlargement

Important culture media you need to know in Microbiology:
1. Levinthal & Mannitol salt agar: Staphylococcus Aureus
2. Crystal Violet blood agar: Streptococcus pyogenes
3. Loeffler’s serum slope & Potassium tellurite blood agar: Corynebacterium diphtheriae
4. Saboraud’s dextrose agar: Nocardia
5. Robertson cooked meat medium: All Anaerobic bacteria
6. PLET medium: Bacillus Anthracis
7. Thayer martin or New york city medium: Gonococcus & Meningococcus
8. MacConkey’s agar: All Enterobactericeae
9. Selenite F Broth & Tetrathionate broth: Salmonella and shigella
10. Bordet gengue medium: Bordetella pertussis
11. Castneda method: Brucella
12. Cetrimide or dettol agar: Pseudomonas
13. Lowenstein jensen (L-J medium) or dorset egg medium: Mycobacterium Tuberculosis
14. PPLO medium: Mycoplasma
15. skirrow’s medium: H.pylori

Important shelf-lives of contraceptives you need to know for FMGE:
(Shelf-life is only important for IUDs)
1. Copper IUDs – 3-5 yrs
2. Progestasert – 1 year
3. CuT 200 – 4 years
4. Nova T – 5 yrs
5. LNG IUD – 7-10 yrs
6. CuT 380A – 10 yrs