Notes

MORE COMING SOON WITH SUBJECT WISE

PSYCHIATRY​ ​&​ ​SKIN
1. Magical​ ​thinking​ ​belief​ ​that​ ​thinking​ ​can​ ​cause​ ​action.
2. Hallucination​ ​is​ ​disorder​ ​of​ ​perception.
3. Delusion​ ​is​ ​a​ ​disorder​ ​of​ ​thought.
4. Emotion​ ​is​ ​controlled​ ​by​ ​Frontal​ ​lobe.
5. Rorschach’s​ ​test​ ​measures​ ​Personality.
6. Best​ ​test​ ​for​ ​diagnosis​ ​of​ ​Organic​ ​Mental​ ​Disorders​ ​Bender​ ​Gestalt.
7. Test​ ​which​ ​uses​ ​projection​ ​typically​ ​is​ ​Rorschach’s​ ​test.
8. Rorschach​ ​inkblot​ ​test​ ​is​ ​Projective.
9. A​ ​false​ ​belief​ ​unexplained​ ​by​ ​reality​ ​shared​ ​by​ ​a​ ​number​ ​of​ ​people​ ​is
Superstition.
10. Sleep​ ​deprivation​ ​leads​ ​to​ ​Decreased​ ​mental​ ​alertness.
11. Delirium​ ​is​ ​marked​ ​by​ ​Clouding​ ​of​ ​consciousness.
12. Delusion​ ​is​ ​not​ ​present​ ​in​ ​Compulsive​ ​disorder.
13. Formed​ ​visual​ ​hallucinations​ ​are​ ​seen​ ​in​ ​lesion​ ​Temporal​ ​lobe.
14. Delusion​ ​in​ ​delirium​ ​are​ ​Transient
15. Disorientation​ ​is​ ​a​ ​features​ ​of​ ​Organic​ ​brain​ ​syndrome.
16. Reversible​ ​dementia​ ​is​ ​a​ ​feature​ ​of​ ​Hypothyroidism.
17. Delirium​ ​and​ ​schizophrenia​ ​differ​ ​from​ ​each​ ​other​ ​by​ ​Disorientation.
18. Wernicke’s​ ​encephalopathy​ ​involves​ ​which​ ​part​ ​of​ ​CNS​ ​Thalamus.
19. Neurofibrillary​ ​tangles​ ​with​ ​senile​ ​plaques​ ​are​ ​seen​ ​in​ ​Alzheimer’s​ ​disease.
20. Diffuse​ ​bilateral​ ​slow​ ​waves​ ​in​ ​EEG​ ​activity​ ​are​ ​seen​ ​in​ ​Delirium.
21. Most​ ​common​ ​cause​ ​of​ ​dementia​ ​is​ ​Alzheimer’s​ ​disease.
22. Physical​ ​dependence​ ​to​ ​drugs​ ​is​ ​indicated​ ​by​ ​Presence​ ​of​ ​need​ ​for
increased​ ​dosage​ ​and​ ​withdrawal​ ​symptoms​ ​occur​ ​on​ ​absence​ ​of​ ​drug.
23. Most​ ​common​ ​substance​ ​abuse​ ​in​ ​India​ ​Alcohol.
24. A​ ​child​ ​present​ ​with​ ​rhinorrhea,​ ​lacrimation,​ ​diarrhea​ ​Heroin​ ​withdrawal.
25. Physical​ ​drug​ ​dependence​ ​is​ ​not​ ​seen​ ​with​ ​Cannabis.
26. Most​ ​active​ ​compound​ ​in​ ​Cannabis​ ​is​ ​9-tetrahydrocannabinol.
27. ‘Hemp​ ​insanity’​ ​is​ ​due​ ​to​ ​intake​ ​of​ ​Cannabis.
28. Flash​ ​backs​ ​are​ ​seen​ ​with​ ​LSD.
29. Most​ ​common​ ​substance​ ​of​ ​abuse​ ​in​ ​India​ ​Alcohol.
30. Active​ ​substance​ ​in​ ​Hashish​ ​is​ ​9​ ​delta​ ​Tetra-Hydrocannabinol.
31. Yawning​ ​is​ ​a​ ​common​ ​feature​ ​of​ ​Opioid​ ​withdrawl.
32. The​ ​term​ ​“Dementia​ ​precox”​ ​was​ ​coined​ ​by​ ​Kraepelin.
33. ‘Dementia​ ​precox’​ ​is​ ​Schizophrenia.
34. Contact​ ​with​ ​reality​ ​is​ ​lost​ ​in​ ​Psychosis.
35. Formal​ ​thought​ ​disorder​ ​is​ ​present​ ​most​ ​common​ ​in​ ​Hebephrenic
schizophrenia.
36. Schizophrenia​ ​is​ ​Functional​ ​psychosis.
37. Good​ ​prognosis​ ​in​ ​schizophrenia​ ​is​ ​indicated​ ​by​ ​Affective​ ​symptoms.
38. Personality​ ​deterioration​ ​is​ ​seen​ ​in​ ​Schizophrenia.
39. Psychomotor​ ​features​ ​are​ ​maximally​ ​seen​ ​in​ ​which​ ​type​ ​of​ ​schizophrenia
Catatonic.
40. Marked​ ​disturbance​ ​in​ ​conation​ ​is​ ​a​ ​feature​ ​of​ ​Catatonic​ ​schizophrenia.
41. Personality​ ​deterioration​ ​is​ ​less​ ​in​ ​case​ ​of​ ​Paranoid​ ​schizophrenia.
42. Life​ ​time​ ​risk​ ​of​ ​schizophrenia​ ​is​ ​0.85%(1%).
43. Intense​ ​nihilism,​ ​somatization,​ ​and​ ​agitation​ ​in​ ​old​ ​age​ ​are​ ​the​ ​features​ ​of
Involutional​ ​melancholia.
44. Anhedonia​ ​lack​ ​of​ ​enjoyment​ ​in​ ​previously​ ​pleasurable​ ​activities.
45. Dysthymia​ ​–Sub​ ​syndromal​ ​depressive​ ​symptoms​ ​for​ ​2​ ​years.
46. Duration​ ​for​ ​leveling​ ​manic​ ​episode​ ​1​ ​week.
47. Flight​ ​of​ ​ideas​ ​is​ ​seen​ ​in​ ​Mania.
48. Affective​ ​disorders​ ​are​ ​associated​ ​with​ ​disturbance​ ​in​ ​Mood.
49. Pressure​ ​of​ ​speech​ ​&​ ​flight​ ​of​ ​ideas​ ​is​ ​a​ ​feature​ ​of​ ​Manic​ ​episode.
50. A​ ​period​ ​of​ ​normalcy​ ​in​ ​between​ ​two​ ​psychotic​ ​disorders​ ​is​ ​a​ ​feature​ ​of
Manic​ ​depressive​ ​psychosis.
51. Skin​ ​doubling​ ​time​ ​is​ ​8​ ​weeks.
52. Vasodilatation​ ​of​ ​skin​ ​does​ ​not​ ​occur​ ​with​ ​Vasopressin.
53. Desmosomes​ ​are​ ​helpful​ ​in​ ​connect

Important LMR Anaesthesia

1.Maximum possibility of hepatitis and AIDS are with which blood products : cryoprecipitate
2.most common cause of hepatitis after blood transfusion: hepatitis B
3.Blood products which should be stored at room temperature: platelets
4.ABO compatibility is least important in : fresh frozen plasma
5.Mismatched blood transfusion during surgery is manifested by: increased blood loss(most specific)> hypotension
6.Blood transfusion borne endotoxemia and septicaemia is usually due to : pseudomonas
7.Vein of choice for parenteral route: subclavian.
8.Diseases which can be transmitted through blood are : Bacterial: pseudomonas, staphylococcus, syphilis, salmonella, brucellosis, yersinia, and rickettsiae
9.Induction of choice for cyanotic heart disease is : ketamine
10.Hypovolemic shock occurs when intravascular volume is decreased by : 15-25%
11.MOA of local anaesthetics : blocking sodium channels
12.LA of choice in malignant hyperpyrexia :procaine
13.LA causing vasoconstriction: cocaine
14.methemoglobinemia caused by : prilocaine
15.Extradural veins :- these are valveless veins extending from cranium(intracranial sinuses) to pelvis
16.Bupivacaine : DOC for isobaric anaesthesia, C/I IV regional anaesthesia
17.Vasopressor of choice for spinal hypotension in pregnancy: ephedrine
18.Spinal cord : occupies the whole vertebral column in IUL but in infancy it ends at lower border of L3 while in adults lower border of L1
Dura extends up to S2
Pia (As filum terminale) up to coccyx
19.C7 – very prominent and easily palpable
T7 – lies opposite to inferior angle of scapula
L4-L5 – highest point of iliac crest
T9. – Xiphisternum
T10 – Umbilicus
L1 – inguinal ligament

PATHO – REVIEW

1. Glomerular hematuria does not clot becoz UROKINASE PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR and TISSUE PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATORS are synthesised in glomeruli and tubules, prevent clot formation

2. Mcc of nephritic syndrome
In children-PSGN
In adults-IgA nephropathy
Overall-IgA nephropathy

3. Mcc of nephrotic syndrome
In children-Minimal change disease
In adults-FSGS
In old age-MGN
Overall-FSGS

4. MC renal disorder associated with leprosy–secondary amyloidosis

5. MC renal lesion associate with hep b viral infection –
In children- MGN
In adults- MPGN
Overall-MGN

6. MC renal lesion with hep c virus infection-CryoglobulinemicGN

OBG – REVIEWS

1. MC variety of endometrial cancer -adenocarcinoma

2. MC malignant variety of endometrial carcinoma :
clear cell ca and papillary serous tumor

3. 1st investigation done in case of endometrial ca-Endometrial aspiration biopsy

4. Best investigation for diagnosing endometrial ca- Hysteroscopy and biopsy

5. In all gynaecological ca FIGO system followed except in ca vulva where both FIGO and TNM staging can be done

6.Staging for endometrial ca is surgical i.e TAH with BSO with pelvic and paraaortic lymphnode dissection being performed @ time of sx only

7. Most characteristic histological finding in clearcell type of endometrial cancer : Hobnail cells

8. Referred pain in endometrial cancer to hypogastrium or both iliac fossa is simpsons pain

SURGERY – REVIEWS

1. Mc tumour of testis : mixed cell type > seminoma

2. Most radiosensitive testicular tumour : seminoma

3.Mc Testicular tumour in infants and children : yolk sac tumour

4. Most common testicular tumour in patients >60years : lymphoma

5. Testicular tumour with best prognosis : Yolksac tumour

6. Testicular tumour with worst prognosis : Hurricane tumour (a type of choriocarcinoma)

7. Mc benign lesion in scrotum : sebaceous cyst

8. Mc malignant tumour in scrotum : squamous cell cancer

PED – REVIEWS

1. MC tumour in children : leukemia

2. Mc solid tumour in children are : CNS TUMOURS

3. MC CNS tumours in children : glial tumours

4. Glial tumours includes astrocytoma , oligodendroglioma , ependymoma

5. Mc posterior fossa tumour in children : cerebrllar astrocytoma

6. 2nd mc posterior fossa tumour in children : medulloblastoma

7. Most cerebellar astrocytomas are benign and most medulloblastomas are malignant

8. Mc site of brain tumour in neonates : supratentorial

9. Mc site of brain tumour in childrens : infratentorial

ORTHO – REVIEW

1.Rice grain sequestrum is seen in tuberculosis

2. Ring sequestrum around amputation stump . Also seen around pin tracks of external fixators

3. Tubular sequestrum in hematogenous osteomyelitis

4. MESS (mangled extremity severity score ) evaluates chances of amputation in traumatic limb.

5. Gustilo and anderson classification : classification of open fracture

6. Major mineral of bone matrix is calcium hydroxyapatite

7. First stage of fracture healing is hematoma formation , last stage is stage of remodelling

8. Criteria for predicting risk of pathological fracture : MIRELS CRITERIA

PHARMA – REVIEW

1. DOC for choriocarcinoma : methotrexate

2. DOC for pancreatic cancer : gemcitabine

3. DOC for Chronic lymphocytic leukemia : fludarabine

4. Alkylating agents are used for chronic leukemia whereas antimetabolites are commonly used for acute leukemias

5. Marrow sparing cytotoxic drugs are vincristine , bleomycin , L – aspariginase

6. Distinctive toxicity of bleomycin is pulmonary fibrosis

7. Earliest indicator of bleomycin induced pulmonary fibrosis is decrease in DLCO

8. Doc for wegener granulomatosis : cyclophosphamide

9. Hemorrhagic cystitis is the side effect of using ifosfamide and cyclophosphamide. Metabolite responsible for it is ACROLEIN.

10. MESNA is used for treatment of hemorrhagic cystitis

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